## GATE Syllabus for Civil Engineering

### ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS

**Linear Algebra:** Matrix algebra, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and eigenvectors.

**Calculus:** Functions of single variable,
Limit, continuity and differentiability, Mean value theorems,
Evaluation of definite and improper integrals, Partial derivatives,
Total derivative, Maxima and minima, Gradient, Divergence and Curl,
Vector identities, Directional derivatives, Line, Surface and Volume
integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green's theorems.

**Differential equations:** First order equations
(linear and nonlinear), Higher order linear differential equations with
constant coefficients, Cauchy's and Euler's equations, Initial and
boundary value problems, Laplace transforms, Solutions of one
dimensional heat and wave equations and Laplace equation.

**Complex variables:** Analytic functions, Cauchy's integral theorem, Taylor and Laurent series.

**Probability and Statistics:** Definitions of
probability and sampling theorems, Conditional probability, Mean,
median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, Normal
and Binomial distributions.

**Numerical Methods:** Numerical solutions of
linear and non-linear algebraic equations Integration by trapezoidal
and Simpson's rule, single and multi-step methods for differential
equations.

### STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING

**Mechanics:** Bending moment and shear force in
statically determinate beams. Simple stress and strain relationship:
Stress and strain in two dimensions, principal stresses, stress
transformation, Mohr's circle. Simple bending theory, flexural and
shear stresses, unsymmetrical bending, shear centre. Thin walled
pressure vessels, uniform torsion, buckling of column, combined and
direct bending stresses.

**Structural Analysis:** Analysis of statically
determinate trusses, arches, beams, cables and frames, displacements in
statically determinate structures and analysis of statically
indeterminate structures by force/ energy methods, analysis by
displacement methods (slope deflection and moment distribution
methods), influence lines for determinate and indeterminate structures.
Basic concepts of matrix methods of structural analysis.

**Concrete Structures:** Concrete Technology-
properties of concrete, basics of mix design. Concrete design- basic
working stress and limit state design concepts, analysis of ultimate
load capacity and design of members subjected to flexure, shear,
compression and torsion by limit state methods. Basic elements of
prestressed concrete, analysis of beam sections at transfer and service
loads.

**Steel Structures:** Analysis and design of
tension and compression members, beams and beam- columns, column bases.
Connections- simple and eccentric, beams column connections, plate
girders and trusses. Plastic analysis of beams and frames.

### GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING

**Soil Mechanics:**Origin of soils, soil
classification, three-phase system, fundamental definitions,
relationship and interrelationships, permeability & seepage,
effective stress principle, consolidation, compaction, shear strength.

**Foundation Engineering:** Sub-surface
investigations- scope, drilling bore holes, sampling, penetration
tests, plate load test. Earth pressure theories, effect of water table,
layered soils. Stability of slopes-infinite slopes, finite slopes.
Foundation types-foundation design requirements. Shallow
foundations-bearing capacity, effect of shape, water table and other
factors, stress distribution, settlement analysis in sands & clays.
Deep foundations - pile types, dynamic & static formulae, load
capacity of piles in sands & clays, negative skin friction.

### WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING

**Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics:** Properties of
fluids, principle of conservation of mass, momentum, energy and
corresponding equations, potential flow, applications of momentum and
Bernoulli's equation, laminar and turbulent flow, flow in pipes, pipe
networks. Concept of boundary layer and its growth. Uniform flow,
critical flow and gradually varied flow in channels, specific energy
concept, hydraulic jump. Forces on immersed bodies, flow measurements
in channels, tanks and pipes. Dimensional analysis and hydraulic
modeling. Kinematics of flow, velocity triangles and specific speed of
pumps and turbines.

**Hydrology:** Hydrologic cycle, rainfall,
evaporation, infiltration, stage discharge relationships, unit
hydrographs, flood estimation, reservoir capacity, reservoir and
channel routing. Well hydraulics.

**Irrigation:** Duty, delta, estimation of
evapo-transpiration. Crop water requirements. Design of: lined and
unlined canals, waterways, head works, gravity dams and spillways.
Design of weirs on permeable foundation. Types of irrigation system,
irrigation methods. Water logging and drainage, sodic soils.

### ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING

**Water requirements:** Quality standards, basic
unit processes and operations for water treatment. Drinking water
standards, water requirements, basic unit operations and unit processes
for surface water treatment, distribution of water. Sewage and sewerage
treatment, quantity and characteristics of wastewater. Primary,
secondary and tertiary treatment of wastewater, sludge disposal,
effluent discharge standards. Domestic wastewater treatment, quantity
of characteristics of domestic wastewater, primary and secondary
treatment Unit operations and unit processes of domestic wastewater,
sludge disposal.

**Air Pollution:** Types of pollutants, their
sources and impacts, air pollution meteorology, air pollution control,
air quality standards and limits.

**Municipal Solid Wastes:** Characteristics,
generation, collection and transportation of solid wastes, engineered
systems for solid waste management (reuse/ recycle, energy recovery,
treatment and disposal).

**Noise Pollution:** Impacts of noise, permissible limits of noise pollution, measurement of noise and control of noise pollution.

### TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING

**Highway Planning:** Geometric design of highways, testing and specifications of paving materials, design of flexible and rigid pavements.

**Traffic Engineering:** Traffic characteristics, theory of traffic flow, intersection design, traffic signs and signal design, highway capacity.

### SURVEYING

Importance of surveying, principles and
classifications, mapping concepts, coordinate system, map projections,
measurements of distance and directions, leveling, theodolite
traversing, plane table surveying, errors and adjustments, curves.