## GATE Syllabus for Geology and Geophysics

### PART A : COMMON TO GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICS

Earth and Planetary system, size, shape, internal
structure and composition of the earth; atmosphere and greenhouse
effect; isostasy; elements of seismology; physical properties of the
interior of the earth; continents and continental processes; physical
oceanography; geomagnetism and paleomagnetism, continental drift, plate
tectonics.

Weathering; soil formation; action of river, wind,
glacier and ocean; earthquakes, volcanism and orogeny. Basic structural
geology, mineralogy and petrology. Geological time scale and
geochronology; stratigraphic principles; major stratigraphic divisions
of India. Engineering properties of rocks and soils. Ground water
geology. Geological and geographical distribution of ore, coal and
petroleum resources of India.

Introduction to remote sensing. Physical basis and
applications of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, seismic
and radiometric prospecting for oil, mineral and ground water;
introductory well logging.

### PART B SECTION 1 : GEOLOGY

Crystal symmetry, forms, twinning; crystal
chemistry; optical mineralogy, classification of minerals, diagnostic
physical and optical properties of rock forming minerals.

Igneous rocks - classification, forms and textures,
magmatic differentiation; phase diagrams and trace elements as monitors
of magma evolutionary processes; mantle melting models and derivation
and primary magmas. Metamorphism; controlling factors, metamorphic
facies, grade and basic types; metamorphism of pelitic, mafic and
impure carbonate rocks; role of fluids in metamorphism; metamorphic
P-T-t paths and their tectonic significance; Igneous and metamorphic
provinces of India; structure and petrology of sedimentary rocks;
sedimentary processes and environments, sedimentary facies, basin
analysis; association of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks
with tectonic setting.

Stress, strain and material response; brittle and
ductile deformation; primary and secondary structures; geometry and
genesis of folds, faults, joints, unconformities; cleavage, schistosity
and lineation; methods of projection, tectonites and their
significance; shear zone; superposed folding; basement cover
relationship.

Morphology, classification and geological
significance of important invertebrates, vertebrates, microfossils and
palaeoflora; stratigraphic principles and Indian stratigraphy.

Geomorphic processes and agents; development and
evolution of landforms; slope and drainage; processes on deep oceanic
and near-shore regions; quantitative and applied geomorphology.

Ore mineralogy and optical properties of ore
minerals; ore forming processes vis-à-vis ore-rock association
(magmatic, hydrothermal, sedimentary and metamorphogenic ores); ores
and metamorphism; fluid inclusions as an ore genetic tool; prospecting
and exploration of economic minerals; sampling, ore reserve estimation,
geostatistics, mining methods. Coal and petroleum geology; origin and
distribution of mineral and fuel deposits in India; marine geology and
ocean resources; ore dressing and mineral economics.

Cosmic abundance; meteorites; geochemical evolution
of the earth; geochemical cycles; distribution of major, minor and
trace elements; elements of geochemical thermodynamics, isotope
geochemistry; geochemistry of waters including solution equilibria and
water rock interaction.

Engineering properties of rocks and soils; rocks as
construction materials; role of geology in the construction of
engineering structures including dams, tunnels and excavation sites;
natural hazards. Ground water geology and exploration, well hydraulics
and water quality. Basic principles of remote sensing - energy sources
and radiation principles, atmospheric absorption, interaction of energy
with earth's surface, air-photo interpretation, multispectral remote
sensing in visible, infrared, thermal IR and microwave regions, digital
processing of satellite images. GIS - basic concepts, raster and vector
mode operation.

### PART B SECTION 2: GEOPHYSICS

The earth as a planet; different motions of the
earth; gravity field of the earth, Clairaut's theorem, size and shape
of earth; geochronology; seismology and interior of the earth;
variation of density, velocity, pressure, temperature, electrical and
magnetic properties of the earth; earthquakes-causes and measurements,
magnitude and intensity, focal mechanisms, earthquake quantification,
source characteristics, seismotectonics and seismic hazards; digital
seismographs, geomagnetic field, paleomagnetism; oceanic and
continental lithosphere; plate tectonics; heat flow; upper and lower
atmospheric phenomena.

Scalar and vector potential fields; Laplace, Maxwell
and Helmholtz equations for solution of different types of boundary
value problems in Cartesian, cylindrical and spherical polar
coordinates; Green's theorem; Image theory; integral equations in
potential theory; Eikonal equation and Ray theory. Basic concepts of
forward and inverse problems of geophysics, Ill-posedness of inverse
problems.

'G' and 'g' units of measurement, absolute and
relative gravity measurements; Land, airborne, shipborne and bore-hole
gravity surveys; various corrections in gravity data reduction - free
air, Bouguer and isostatic anomalies; density estimates of rocks;
regional and residual gravity separation; principle of equivalent
stratum; upward and downward continuation; wavelength filtering;
preparation and analysis of gravity maps; gravity anomalies and their
interpretation ; anomalies due to geometrical and irregular shaped
bodies, depth rules, calculation of mass.

Earth's magnetic field - elements, origin and units
of measurement, magnetic susceptibility of rocks and measurements,
magnetometers, Land, airborne and marine magnetic surveys, corrections,
preparation of magnetic maps, upward and downward continuation,
magnetic anomalies-geometrical shaped bodies, depth estimates, Image
processing concepts in processing of magnetic anomaly maps;
Interpretation of processed magnetic anomaly data.

Conduction of electricity through rocks, electrical
conductivities of metals, non-metals, rock forming minerals and
different rocks, concepts of D.C. resistivity measurement, various
electrode configurations for resistivity sounding and profiling,
application of filter theory, Type-curves over multi-layered
structures, Dar-Zarrouck parameters, reduction of layers, coefficient
of anisotropy, interpretation of resistivity field data, equivalence
and suppression, self potential and its origin, field measurement,
Induced polarization, time and frequency domain IP measurements;
interpretation and applications of IP, ground-water exploration,
environmental and engineering applications.

Basic concept of EM induction, Origin of
electromagnetic field, elliptic polarization, methods of measurement
for different source-receiver configuration, components in EM
measurements. Skin-depth, interpretation and applications; earth's
natural electromagnetic field, tellurics, magneto-tellurics;
geomagnetic depth sounding principles, electromagnetic profiling,
methods of measurement, processing of data and interpretation.
Geological applications including groundwater, mining and hydrocarbon
exploration.

Seismic methods of prospecting; Elastic properties
of earth materials; Reflection, refraction and CDP surveys; land and
marine seismic sources, generation and propagation of elastic waves,
velocity depth models, geophones, hydrophones, recording instruments
(DFS), digital formats, field layouts, seismic noises and noise profile
analysis, optimum geophone grouping, noise cancellation by shot and
geophone arrays, 2D and 3D seismic data acquisition, processing and
interpretation; CDP stacking charts, binning, filtering, dip-moveout,
static and dynamic corrections, Digital seismic data processing,
seismic deconvolution and migration methods, attribute analysis, bright
and dim spots, seismic stratigraphy, high resolution seismics, VSP,
AVO. Reservoir geophysics.

Geophysical signal processing, sampling theorem,
aliasing, Nyquist frequency, Fourier series, periodic waveform, Fourier
and Hilbert transform, Z-transform and wavelet transform; power
spectrum, delta function, auto correlation, cross correlation,
convolution, deconvolution, principles of digital filters, windows,
poles and zeros.

Principles and techniques of geophysical
well-logging. SP, resistivity, induction, gamma ray, neutron, density,
sonic, temperature, dip meter, caliper, nuclear magnetic, cement bond
logging, micro-logs. Quantitative evaluation of formations from well
logs; well hydraulics and application of geophysical methods for
groundwater study; application of bore hole geophysics in ground water,
mineral and oil exploration.

Radioactive methods of prospecting and assaying of
minerals (radioactive and non radioactive) deposits, half-life, decay
constant, radioactive equilibrium, G M counter, scintillation detector,
semiconductor devices, application of radiometric for exploration and
radioactive waste disposal.

Geophysical inverse problems; non-uniqueness and
stability of solutions; quasi-linear and non-linear methods including
Tikhonov's regularization method, Backus-Gilbert method, simulated
annealing, genetic algorithms and artificial neural network.